How DNS Works | About Domain Name System

We should know the DNS basic concepts of how DNS works. So to understand the basic concept of Domain name system  (DNS), we have a network where multiple computers are connected. Various IP addresses are configured on these computers. So through these computers, you can communicate with each other.

When data is required from one computer to another, we gain access through an IP address. Our computers deal in number format, i.e. 0 1.

An IP address is a digital number. Humans can remember more names than numbers. Therefore DNS complements this concept. Humans can remember the number to a certain extent, if the number is uncountable, then a human can’t remember it.

But, It is most comfortable for humans to remember things by name. So in this way a name is given to the website. So that search can also be done by name. But these websites or web pages also have an IP address with this name. Before knowing how DNS works, we need to know what DNS is.

What is DNS

DNS is the Domain name system: So this is where DNS work starts because DNS starts with the name of the domain name system. Therefore, DNS provides name service. Hence name services are services called name resolution.

Such as IP address by name, the name by IP address. If we know the name of a website, we do not need its IP address. Similarly, If we know the IP address of a website, we do not require its name. Suppose facebook.com is the name of the website, an IP address is also registered on the DNS server with this name.

So as soon as you search that website by name, the DNS server in the background will translate the unique IP address associated with that name and connect it in front of you. So this process called name to IP address translation or IP address to name translation.

How DNS works

To understand DNS service is like a phonebook, we have to go to the phone’s phonebook. Just like we save the phone number of a friend or relative by their name, it is straightforward to remember the name and not the phone number. 

If we want to call a relative, we search by name. There is a phone number behind that name. Here the phone number is translated into the name or the title is turned into a phone number. So here is a phone call by name and also by phone number. A phone call is from one phone number to another.

But here the phonebook has made the phone call easy keeping in mind the practice of remembering humans by name. So, in this way, DNS translates name websites IP address or the IP address to the name of the sites.

Today we will learn help DNS to open a website on our computer in this blog, which is always working in the background on the Internet. Computers still identify a website with each other through an IP address, which is a unique number. The computer does not recognize the site by name.

They do not understand human languages if computers do not understand human words how they load a website when we type its address in the web browsers. 

DNS starts working as soon as searching on the URL bar. Suppose we speak in Tamil, and we want to communicate with a person who speaks Hindi, then here we will need a translator.

How DNS works on the Internet

Same in the case from the Internet to computers or web browsers it understands IP addresses. Thus DNS always acts as a translator between users and networks in the background.

The Domain Name System (DNS) maintains a structured chart, where numbers are mapped to TLD names, where websites’ domain names are marked on their IP addresses.

Now, when we type Facebook.com in a web browser, DNS translates it into web browsing language (0 1 binary code), which is an IP address and passes it to the web browser.

Now web browser understands that we want to access Google com, so it contacts the Google server and loads google.com on the computer. DNS works like a phonebook on the Internet, While the computer searches the names for numbers.

How DNS works in the background

To understand this matter, we need to know what our DNS server computers work, DNS which stores a file for images of server or HTML files, which provide the IP address of the requested website for the web browser to let’s work together, called DNS.

There are four categories of DNS servers. That is recursive resolver, root nameserver, TLD nameserver and authoritative nameserver. DNS recursive resolver or DNS resolver root name server top-level domain or TLD name server. 

The Internet service provider provides an authoritative name server. DNS resolver connects the web browser of our computer to the DNS nameservers. 

Thirteen sets of root name servers logically named as letter dot root- servers. Dot net extension letter ranges from A to M and is operated by 12 different organizations in the world. 

Every 13 sets have several servers placed around the world, and an informational page exists for all root name servers at address letter door root- servers—dot org where letter ranges from A to M. 

It is the homepage address details of all root nameservers can be found on the website. The server stores all the information of all domains sharing data on a standard domain extension. 

For an example dot com TLD name servers stores the information of all web sites ending with a dot-com extension. Dot net TLD (Top level domain) name server stores all information of all dot net web sites, and so on authoritative name server is the last server in the domain name system it stores the IP address of the requested web site. 

 How a computer loads a website 

Four types of DNS servers serve to load a webpage
  • DNS Recursor: DNS Recursor is a service designed to receive queries from a client’s system through an application such as a web browser.
  • Root Nameserver: The root server is the first step in translating human-readable hostnames into IP addresses. It works exactly as the index shows the various racks of goods in the store. It serves or indicates a more specific location by reference.
  • TLD Nameserver: Top-level domain (TLD) servers can be thought of as specific racks of goods in one of the store. This nameserver is the second step in searching for an IP address, and it hosts the last part of the hostname such as a netkibaten.com, so here it is .com.
  • Authoritative Nameserver: This final nameserver can be thought of as the specific goods name located on a rack in the store, in which a specific name can be translated into its definition. So, the authoritative nameserver is the last stop in the nameserver query.

If we type “facebook.com” in the web browser since the web browser needs an IP address for the facebook.com, so it forwards the query to the computers operating system, operating systems are configured to the DNS resolver operating system. 

Then contacts the DNS resolver checks its cache whether it has the IP address of the requested website. If not DNS query is forwarded to the root nameservers.

The root name server checks the extension of any website, whether it is dot com, dot org, dot net. So, based on the extension the root name server provides the IP address of TLD name server to the DNS resolver. 

In this case, the IP address of dot-com TLD name server is provided to the DNS resolver. DNS resolver then contacts dot com TLD name server which then provides the IP address of the authoritative name server. 

Which must store the IP address of the requested website. Finally, the official name server provides the exact IP address of google.com. DNS resolve work DNS resolver stores this information in its cache for future use and provides the IP address to the computer’s operating system. 

The operating system then forwards it to the web browser then contacts the Facebook server and loads the requested website that is facebook.com.

How DNS Works | About Domain Name System
DNS SERVER

Details of “Authoritative DNS Nameserver”.

But how TLD names of know which authoritative nameserver stores the IP address of the requested website. For example, using the TLD name hosted on the Registrar’s website sets the official nameservers, where we can find details of authorizer nameservers.

It all starts when we buy a domain name from a registrar. For example, go today on Registrar’s website we can set the authoritative nameserver that domain should use we get the details of the authoritative nameserver. 

When we buy web hosting plans from Hostgator, Hostinger or any other company, Then they authoritative nameserver details are entered in the Registries website. 

The Registries website tells the TLD nameservers. The managing authority of registry websites updates the TLD name server with the details of an authoritative name server. The user has provided the name, now the name of the TLD will provide the exact IP address of the official nameserver website. 

Why DNS is required

If we know the IP address of the website, then we can access it only by typing the IP address in the web browser. In these cases, DNS will not play any role, because we already know the IP address of the website; however, as the number of websites increases. 

It becomes challenging to remember the IP addresses. Therefore DNS servers eliminate the need for humans to remember many of these IP addresses.

Right now, the only thing you need to remember is the domain name which is very easy to remember. If you have learned something from this blog, then please share this article, So that more people will learn.

What happens without DNS:

History of the DNS

DNS can be used on the Internet or private networks. Today we cannot imagine without DNS, because millions of websites in the world are closing or opening in a day.

The Host.txt file is used before DNS for the name resolution. In today’s modern system also uses this file. This file was a plain text file and was placed in a centralized location that operated manually as a Host.txt file.

But it had its limitations, and it was manually updated on the flat structure. But, manually managing, it was very complicated.

Then later invented the DNS structure, which works on a hierarchical structure system, called the domain namespace. It is used in the inverted tree structure, which is a hierarchically distributed system.

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