How mobile communication works | Cell Phone towers | Generations

Mobile communication technology, ‘Cell Phone Tower’ and ‘Generation’ are all interlinked. Today we will know in detail how mobile communication and cell phone towers work which is the most used technology in our modern daily life; Also, what the generation is, they will also know in detail.

We know that technology never stops and this is also applicable in mobile communication technology. Innovation has always been going on, like from 2G to 3G and 3G we are all currently living in 4G

Meanwhile, 5G technology is knocking at our door. So before knowing about 2G, 3G, 4G and the most advanced 5G, we should be well aware of how mobile communication technology works.

For most of us, a mobile phone is an integral part of our lives. But I am sure that such questions will always surround our curious mind as to how calls are made from mobile phones, and which technology works behind this.

So in this article, let’s find out about the technology behind mobile communication as well as Generation and Cell Phone Tower. First of all, we must know how mobile communication technology works.

How mobile communication works

So let’s talk about mobile communication technology. When you talk on your phone to someone, your phone’s microphone hears your voice, then converts your voice into a digital signal using the phone’s MEMs (Micro electro-mechanical sensor) and IC

Digital signals treat your voice as two symbol systems of ‘0’ and ‘1’, which we know as binary number systems. An antenna on your phone receives a signal of binary number system ‘0’ and ‘1’ and converts it into electromagnetic waves. 

Electromagnetic waves transmit waveforms (such as Amplitude, Frequency, Phase), or a combination of these. For example, in the case of frequencies, the binary number system ‘0’ and ‘1’ are transmitted as low and high frequencies respectively, and communicate it as electromagnetic waves.

So if you know how to send these electromagnetic waves to your friend’s phone, then you will be able to call. However, electromagnetic waves are unable to travel long distances.

Because of these physical objects such as large buildings, trees, electrical equipment, and the presence of inclement weather become a factor in losing the signal. 

If such issues did not occur, even then, due to the rotating structure of the Earth, electromagnetic waves would not last forever. So here the cellular Tower has been used to solve this problem.

How does work Cell phone Tower 

So to overcome these problems in mobile communication, cell phone towers were built. In the cellular tower technique, a geographic region is divided into hexagonal cells in each cell, with its tower and frequency slot.

Typically, these cell phone towers are connected via wires, or in particular, to optical fibre cables. These optical fibre cables are placed under land or ocean to provide national or international connectivity.

So the electromagnetic waves produced by the phone reach the nearest Tower that is connected to your phone, and the Tower converts this electromagnetic wave into high-frequency light pulses. These light pulses are carried to the base transceiver box at the base of the Tower for further signal processing.

After processing, the voice moves the signal towards the destination tower. Upon receiving the pulse, the destination tower transmits it outward in the form of electromagnetic waves, and your friend’s phone then receives the signal. 

How does work cell phone tower
Cell Phone Tower

This signal goes through a reverse process, and your friend listens to your voice. So, it is true that mobile communications are not entirely wireless; these are mostly connected with optical fibre.

However, mobile communication is successful only when the signal is transferred from one Tower to another. But here the cell phone Tower is unable to send the signal to the specific cell Tower because there are many towers connected.

For this process, the cell tower is supported by something called a mobile switching centre (MSC). The MSC (Mobile switching centre) is the central point of a group of cell towers. Before proceeding further, let us explain more about MSC.

Mobile Switching Center (MSC)

When you purchase a SIM card, all membership information is registered in a specified MSC. Here Home MSC contains necessary information about users such as service plan, your current location, name, gender and status of your activity.

If you go beyond the limits of your home MSC then the new MSC works in its place, you are known as a foreign MSC. As soon as you enter a new field MSC, it starts communicating with your home MSC.

In short, your home MSC (Mobile Switching Center) always knows which external MSC area you are in. To understand this, home MSCs receive signals through cell phone towers that are connected to foreign MSCs with optical fibres.

In this way, the location is updated after a certain period. When the phone exceeds a predefined number of towers, the location update is performed again because the phone connects to the cell towers of various places which are connected to the mobile switching centres.

Mobile communication technology is not entirely wireless, and mostly they are connected to the high-speed optical fibre.

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For Example.

Know how phone calls work with each other. Let us know all these processes with an example. ‘Jim‘ wants to call ‘Kim‘. (Jim and Kim are a fictitious name only shown to make sense).

‘Jim’ dials the phone number of ‘Kim’ in the phone and reaches the call request MSC through the cell phone Tower located near the ‘Jim’ house. On receiving the name, phone number of ‘Kim’, the call request is sent to Kim’s home MSC.

Now, Kim’s MSC checks for his current MSC. If ‘Kim’ is in his home MSC, the call requests will be immediately sent to his current cell location, and it checks whether Kim is engaged on another call or if his mobile is switched off. If everything is positive, Kim’s phone rings and the call will be connected.

However, if Kim is not in his home MSC, Kim’s home MSC forwards the call request to the foreign MSC. The external MSC will follow the previously explained procedure to locate. Kim’s a phone and will then establish the call.

Frequency spectrum in Mobile Communication

So let’s talk about why the Frequency spectrum is essential in mobile phone communication. To transfer people to digital broadcasting in the two symbol system ‘0’ and ‘1’, a frequency range is allocated to each customer.

However, the frequency spectrum available for cellular communication is quite limited, and there are billions of subscribers. 

So, this problem is solved with the help of two techniques, one frequency slot distribution and the other multiple access techniques.

In the first technique, different frequency slots are carefully assigned to various cell towers. In multiple access technology, this frequency slot is distributed efficiently among all active users of the cellular area. Now it is essential to know about the generation in mobile communication.

Generations in mobile communication 

Now, the big question. Why are there different generations of mobile communication technologies? 

 2G in Mobile communication: The second-generation mobile network (2G) allowed users to have an all-digital communication standard for mobile communication technology.

But in the beginning, 1G faced significant problems. The main problem was wireless transmission in analogue format, that means provide poor voice quality and poor security. 

Another problem was that it used frequency division multiple access techniques, which made inefficient use of the available spectrum. 

All these factors helped the second generation (2G) mobile network to make advance mobile communication. It used various digital access technologies such as GSM, GPRS or CDMA technology and thus the introduction of the revolutionary data service, SMS and Internet browsing, began in the second generation. 3G technology was focused on delivering high data transfer speeds.

 3G in Mobile communication: This increased bandwidth as well as the use of WCDMA multiple access technologies. To achieve this, 3G speeds of three (03) Mbps changed the transfer of data to smartphones as a primary step for applications such as GPS, video, voice calls.

4G in Mobile communication: Next came 4G, achieving speeds of 20 to 100 Mbps. It was suitable for high-resolution movies and television. This high speed was made possible by OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-Division-multiplexing) multiple access technology and MIMO (Multiple inputs multiple outputs) technologies.

MIMO (Multiple inputs multiple outputs) uses multiple transmitter-receiver antennas inside both mobile phones and cellular towers. Currently, 4G networks are available in most of the region in India.

5G Technology is a Fifth generation 5G mobile network. 5G wireless technology provides multi-Gbps high-speed data, which combines new users and industries with higher performance and better efficiency.

The next-generation mobile communication, 5G Technology, will be commissioned soon, using enhanced MIMO technology and millimetre waves.

CONCLUSION: I think all these main facts behind mobile communication technology work with each other. I hope you have got the basic information about how mobile communication works along with the cell phone tower. If you know more about it, please tell in the comments section.

Thank you very much.

One Comment on “How mobile communication works | Cell Phone towers | Generations”

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